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Covid-19 learning deficits in Europe - Analysis and practical recommendations : analytical report

Auteur(s) :  De Witt Kristof, François Maxime

Editeur(s) :  European Commission (EC)

Date :  03/2023


The aim of this report is threefold. Its first section provides an overall sketch of the situation across Europe and the underlying mechanisms for the differences in European countries. The second section focuses on the heterogeneities within each country. It examines the disparities among students in order to understand which of those correlate with larger learning deficits or worsening mental health. Section 3, considers the findings of the first two sections in order to discuss five policy recommendations for the short and long run.

1. Influence of COVID-19 on educational attainments in Europe

1.1. Belgium (Flanders)

1.2. Czechia

1.3. Denmark

1.4. Finland

1.5. France

1.6. Germany

1.7. Greece

1.8. Hungary

1.9. Italy

1.10. The Netherlands

1.11. Poland

1.12. Spain (Basque Country)

1.13. Sweden

1.14. Switzerland

1.15. UK (England)

1.16. Summary of the findings and expected long-term effects

2. The influence of the COVID-19 pandemic  on  educational inequality  and  heterogeneity

2.1. Socio-economic status (SES)

2.2. Inequalities between strong and weak students

2.3. Gender gap

2.4. Mental health and cognitive heterogeneity

2.5. Children of essential workers 

2.6. Migrant background

2.7. Students with special educational needs (SEN)

3. Policy implications and recommendations

3.1. Short term – Compensatory policies: summer schools, tutoring and additional tutoring during breaks 

3.2. Short term – Targeted compensatory policies

3.3. Short and long term – Monitoring 

3.4. Long term – Adapting the curriculum

3.5. Long term – Investment


Appendix A – Key findings

Appendix B - Maps

Appendix C – Regression results


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mot(s) clé(s) :  enseignement supérieur, réussite et résultats d'apprentissage, situation de crise et pandémie