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Comprendre les expériences scolaires des enfants déficients visuels en France : Approche mixte par l’ethnographie et le design.


Auteur(s) :  BRULE Emeline

Date de soutenance :  2018

Thèse délivrée par :  Telecom ParisTech

Section(s) CNU :  section 71 : Sciences de l'information et de la communication

Sous la direction de :  Annie GENTES & Gilles BAILLY

Jury de thèse :  Madeleine AKRICH ; Gilles BAILLY ; Annie GENTES ; Ann HEYLIGHEN ; Wendy MACKAY ; Marine ROYER

 

"Depuis 2005, la France reconnaît le droit des enfants handicapés à être scolarisés dans leur école de quartier. Cette recherche, conduite de 2014 à 2017, s’intéresse aux expériences scolaires des enfants malvoyants et aveugles en France, permettant de comprendre les impacts de ces changements législatifs. Plus spécifiquement, elle s’attache à comprendre comment le bien-être des élèves est défini dans ce cadre, tant par les élèves que par les acteurs médico-sociaux et les enseignantes ; les ressources négociées et mobilisées par les élèves pour améliorer leurs conditions scolaires ; ainsi qu’à proposer des manières dont les technologies éducatives d’assistance peuvent être conçues et utilisées dans cette optique. Pour ce faire, il est proposé d’explorer comment le tournant sensoriel peut permettre de concevoir des dispositifs techniques et didactiques inclusifs."

Understanding the experiences of schooling of visually impaired children: A French ethnographic and design inquiry

"In 2005, France passed a law on equal rights and opportunities, participation and citizenship of people with disabilities. It consecrated the right of all children to attend their neighbourhood school and reorganized the provision of services to this population, including the provision of assistive technologies. This research conducted a decade later between 2014 and 2017, investigates visually impaired children’s experiences of schooling and the roles of technologies in supporting their well-being at school. I developed a mixed-methods interdisciplinary approach, blending qualitative sociological research with Human-Computer Interaction experiments. Specifically, I conducted a two-years-long ethnographic study at a service provider for visually impaired children in the South of France, during which I made several design interventions. This field-work is contextualized by a critical review of the statistics on the schooling of visually impaired children provided by the Ministry of Education. I use an ecological understanding of resilience to examine children’s narratives about school, across different schooling modalities (e.g., mainstream and special education school) and sociodemographic characteristics. I discuss the resources and strategies children and their carers use to open opportunities for well-being at school, including uses of technologies. I contextualize these by investigating desirable schooling outcomes that define who is resilient and what resilience is for. From there I propose to develop a non-visual approach to the (geography) curriculum inspired by the sensory turn. By changing what is considered as a valued way of learning, this thesis aims at providing opportunities to develop the sense of belonging and the perception of self-efficacy in the classroom. It informs us on the uses of hearing, smell, taste, and kinesthesia in geography; it supports pupils in reshaping of the learning activities and spaces; Finally, it opens opportunities for collective geographical knowledge rooted in experiences of social inequalities. More broadly, it opens a discussion on building collective well-being and resilience in schools."



URL :  https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-02176245/document


mot(s) clé(s) :  histoire-géographie, handicap, inclusion